Microsoft Data Protection Manager Server 2012 R2 did not support the backup and recovery for Microsoft Exchange 2016 Server
Microsoft did not support backup and recovery of Microsoft Exchange 2016 Server with DPM 2012 R2 now.
The Microsoft Exchange Team replied to my request that regarding "[...] the DPM Supportability Matrix it seems like at this time, DPM does not support Exchange 2016 as a workload. The fact that it is not listed as of yet usually means testing has not been completed. So I would not suggest [...] customers to do that at this time."
There is until now no possible resolution! At this stage, it can only be speculated whether and when Microsoft DPM officially support the backup of Microsoft Exchange Server 2016.
To be continued . . .